Skip to content

Click here to request for a quote or call us +966 5645 58433

 +966 5951 95007

Water Treatment How It Works – 2023 Guide

Introduction to Water Treatment

Water treatment is a must for safe drinking water for people. The process removes bad chemicals and pollutants from water, making it ready for use, watering, and more. This involves steps such as coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, filtering, disinfection, and desalination.

Coagulation means adding agents to take away floating particles. Sedimentation follows, where the flocs settle at the bottom. Then, filtering is done with sand beds or membranes to eliminate impurities. Advanced treatments like reverse osmosis and ultraviolet radiation are used too. This eliminates tiny pollutants like viruses and bacteria.

Contamination can still occur when water is distributed through pipes with poor maintenance or from a polluted source. To tackle this, management strategies and tech like sensors and alarms can help monitor water quality and lower health risks from consuming contaminated water. One example is the Flint Michigan lead poisoning crisis in 2014-15. It was caused by improper corrosion control inhibitors, and lead entered the drinking supply. This led to protests for better public safety laws.

If relaxation at the spa is calming, you should see what wastewater goes through during primary treatment!

Primary Treatment

To effectively treat water, you need to start with primary treatment. This is where pollutants are removed physically before any chemical processes begin. In the following sub-sections, screening and sedimentation, we’ll outline the solutions used to remove the largest debris and separate heavy materials from the water.


Screening is key for effective primary treatment. Five points to consider:

  1. Identify target population for primary care services.
  2. Foster interprofessional collaboration for accurate screening.
  3. Utilize appropriate assessment tools to identify health risks.
  4. Create referral systems for more specialized care.
  5. Follow-up on referrals.

Screening brings lots of benefits. Access to healthcare improves, costs reduce, health outcomes get better. Plus, involve community members in identifying high-risk populations for added success. Events like health fairs and community events can help identify underserved individuals or populations at risk for common chronic diseases.

In conclusion, screening is great for successful primary treatment outcomes. It identifies health risks early.


Primary Treatment: A must-do process is settling of suspended particles. This process is essential in wastewater treatment plants. In sedimentation, wastewater enters large tanks and slows down. Gravity pulls heavier materials to the bottom – this is called sludge and needs to be extracted and disposed of.

Sedimentation not just removes solids, but de-gases too. It helps remove pathogens and parasites. Monitoring temperature, pH levels and settling time is needed for efficient sedimentation.

To make it more efficient, improving influent quality will help. Reducing flow rate and increasing surface area can optimize settlement yields. Maintenance of components like weirs and baffles in sediment tanks should happen often. Now, it’s time to take your sewage from ‘meh’ to ‘marvelous’ in secondary treatment!

Secondary Treatment

To understand the process of secondary treatment in water treatment systems, you’ll need to know about biological treatment and filtration. By using these two methods in combination, wastewater goes through a transformation that removes impurities and harmful bacteria.

Biological Treatment

Managing wastewater requires various tech processes. Biological treatment is one such process. It uses living organisms to break down organic matter in wastewater. This helps purify water and reduce pollution. Microbes, like bacteria and fungi, are introduced into wastewater. They consume pollutants and turn them into less harmful substances like carbon dioxide and water.

Two types of biological treatment are aerobic and anaerobic. In aerobic, oxygen is supplied to microbes. In anaerobic, it’s low-oxygen environment which creates methane.

Technology has progressed significantly and improved upon this centuries-old process. Innovations such as movable bed bioreactors and granular activated sludge processing have increased efficiency.

Untreated wastewater has caused health issues globally. Proper sewage management using techniques like biological treatment can help prevent health problems and protect the environment from pollutants.


At the next stage of water treatment, purification helps remove impurities. This calls for an efficient and well-structured filtration system. It can separate particles and contaminants from the water.

The following table shows different types of filtration, their description and examples:

Types of Filtration Description Examples
Sedimentation Removing larger particles with gravity. Sand Filters, Gravel Beds
Microfiltration Porous membrane to remove solids & microorganisms. Reverse Osmosis Membrane, Ultrafiltration Membrane
Activated Carbon Filters Adsorption of organic chemicals on carbon granules. Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) Filters, Powdered Activated Carbon (PAC) Filters

To get cleaner water, UF membranes couple with other filters like GAC. This boosts the purification efficiency.

Filtration techniques have seen lots of advancements. Ceramic Filtration is one such example. It’s an affordable filter made up of clay mixed with sawdust or rice husks. This filter is effective at removing bacteria and protozoa from water.

Ceramic Filtration has offered many benefits in Southeast Asia. People living in rural areas with no suitable source of safe drinking water now have access to it. These filters help prevent diarrhoeal diseases caused by unsafe drinking water.

Why just settle for secondary treatment? Make it all pristine with tertiary treatment. It’s like going for a full reconstruction instead of a Band-Aid.

Tertiary Treatment

To achieve effective tertiary treatment in water treatment, you need to consider chemical treatment and disinfection. This section will provide you insights on these sub-sections of tertiary treatment. You’ll learn how chemical treatment and disinfection work to purify the water and what benefits they offer.

Chemical Treatment

Water treatment is a complex process. Utilizing chemical agents to remove pollutants and pathogens from the water supply is a crucial step. This involves using chemicals to alter or remove impurities that could be harmful to humans.

Chemical Purification is a 3-stage process. Screening, sedimentation and filtration take place. Coagulants like aluminum sulfate are added to make smaller particles into larger clumps (called flocs). These can be removed by sedimentation or filtration.

Activated carbon might be used to remove odors or tastes from water. Chlorine or ozone is then added for disinfection.

Chemical Treatment differs depending on contaminants present. pH level, mineral content and temperature are factors that can influence the chemicals used.

Protect yourself! Ensure your drinking water undergoes chemical treatment. Water supply experts suggest comprehensive purification routines with adequate chemical treatments for maximum public health protection. Disinfection is like playing a game of Whack-a-Mole, but the stakes are much higher!


Chlorination is a popular way to disinfect. It kills bacteria and viruses. UV radiation is another choice. It damages microorganism DNA, preventing them from reproducing. Ozonation involves ozone gas, which eliminates pathogens and cuts organic matter.

Disinfection helps reduce bad smells and tastes in water. It stops algae and other growths. It also increases the lifetime of packaged products.

During WWI, chlorine was a weapon. After the war, scientists saw its effectiveness in treating water. Chlorination is still one of the most common methods today.

Amazingly, treating sewage water can be renewable. It’s like solving a poop issue with power!

Renewable Energy in Water Treatment

To understand how renewable energy is used in water treatment, explore the sub-sections: solar and wind-powered water treatment plants. These solutions offer cleaner and more sustainable ways to treat water while reducing reliance on traditional energy sources. This section provides insight into how renewable energy in water treatment is becoming an increasingly popular and practical choice.

Solar Powered Water Treatment Plants

Revolutionizing water treatment with renewable energy sources is the new trend. Harnessing solar energy for water purification is popular ’cause it’s eco-friendly and cost-effective.

Solar panels absorb energy from the sun and convert it to electricity. This powers machines to filter and disinfect water. Plus, this sustainable tech reduces greenhouse gas emissions compared to conventional methods.

Traditional water treatment systems use fossil fuel and have a high carbon footprint. But solar-powered water treatment systems use the sun and have a much lower carbon footprint. Plus, they’re cheaper to build.

Solar-powered water treatment facilities save costs in the long run by eliminating fuel expenses. It also reduces our dependence on non-renewable resources.

An example of this tech in action is BrightSource Energy’s Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System in California. It provides clean energy for over 140,000 homes and fresh drinking water through desalination.

The demand for environmental-friendly alternatives is growing. Harnessing solar energy for water purification has great potential to address environmental sustainability and create sustainable economic benefits.

Wind Powered Water Treatment Plants

Harness the power of wind to purify water! Wind Energy-powered water treatment plants can treat and purify large volumes of water. This eco-friendly option uses wind turbines to facilitate the process efficiently.

Benefits include:

  • Cost-Efficient: Reduced energy costs, long-term savings.
  • Environmentally Friendly: Low carbon footprint, renewable energy source.
  • Efficient & Reliable: Consistent power supply regardless of weather conditions.

Wind Energy-powered water filtration systems are cost-effective, environmentally friendly, and dependable. Incorporating wind-powered energy sources into existing infrastructure is an effective way to enhance sustainability in the water industry.
Plus, the only thing worse than a water treatment plant running on fossil fuels is a stand-up comedian with a dead mic!

Conclusion: The Importance of Water Treatment and Sustainable Practices

Water treatment and sustainable practices are essential for clean water and biodiversity. If these processes are not done, diseases can spread and affect health. Minimizing emissions from treatment facilities helps in mitigating climate change impacts on water resources.

Innovative technologies like reverse osmosis and UV disinfection can eliminate pollutants from source water. Industries should use renewable energy sources to power their operations, and reduce dependence on chemicals that contaminate watersheds. This protects the purity of rivers, lakes and oceans.

Education programs about waste disposal and farming techniques will help create a culture of responsible ownership for resources.

80% of wastewater is discharged into nature without treatment (UN Water). This shows the need for better management of freshwater resources through efficient treatment and responsible usage practices.